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This is a list of invasive species in North America. A species is regarded as invasive if it has been introduced by human action to a location, area, or region where it did not previously occur naturally (i.e., is not a native species), becomes capable of establishing a breeding population in the new location without further intervention by humans, and becomes a pest in the new location, directly threatening agriculture or the local biodiversity.

The term invasive species refers to a subset of those species defined as introduced species. If a species has been introduced, but remains local, and is not problematic to agriculture or to the local biodiversity, then it is not considered to be invasive, and does not belong on this list.

Plants


List of 20 Critically Endangered Species That Zoos Are Helping to ...
  • Acer platanoides (Norway Maple)
  • Achillea millefolium (common yarrow)
  • Acroptilon repens (Russian knapweed)
  • Ailanthus (chouchun, tree of heaven)
  • Albizia julibrissin (Persian silk tree, mimosa, pink siris)
  • Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard, hedge garlic)
  • Allium vineale (crow garlic)
  • Alnus glutinosa (black alder)
  • Anthemis cotula (mayweed)
  • Anthriscus sylvestris (Queen Anne's Lace)
  • Ardisia crenata (coral bush, coralberry)
  • Arundo donax (giant reed, Spanish cane)
  • Barbarea verna (land cress)
  • Barbarea vulgaris (yellow rocket)
  • Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry, Thunberg's barberry)
  • Bothriochloa ischaemum (King Ranch bluestem)
  • Bromus tectorum (downy brome, drooping brome)
  • Butomus umbellatus (flowering rush, grass rush)
  • Cardamine hirsuta (hairy bittercress)
  • Carduus nutans (musk thistle, nodding thistle)
  • Casuarina equisetifolia (Australian pine, Filao tree)
  • Caulerpa taxifolia ("killer algae")
  • Celastrus orbiculatus (Oriental bittersweet)
  • Centaurea diffusa (diffuse knapweed, white knapweed)
  • Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed)
  • Centaurea solstitialis (yellow cockspur, yellow starthistle)
  • Chrysanthemum leucanthemum (Oxeye daisy)
  • Cinnamomum camphora (camphor laurel, camphor tree)
  • Cirsium arvense (Canada thistle)
  • Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle)
  • Colocasia esculenta (wild taro)
  • Commelina communis (Asiatic blue dayflower)
  • Conium maculatum (poison hemlock)
  • Cortaderia selloana (pampas grass)
  • Cosmos sulphureus (sulfur cosmos, yellow Cosmos)
  • Cynanchum louiseae
  • Cynanchum rossicum (dog-strangling vine, swallowwort)
  • Cytisus scoparius (common broom, Scotch broom)
  • Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace)
  • Dichanthium spp. (Old World bluestems)
  • Dioscorea bulbifera (air potato)
  • Egeria densa (Brazilian waterweed, large-flowered waterweed)
  • Eichhornia crassipes (common water hyacinth)
  • Elaeagnus angustifolia (Russian olive, Russian silverberry)
  • Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive, Japanese silverberry)
  • Eucalyptus globulus (southern blue gum, Tasmanian blue gum)
  • Euonymus alata (burning bush, winged euonymus)
  • Euonymus fortunei (winter creeper vine)
  • Euphorbia esula (green spurge, leafy spurge)
  • Glechoma hederacea (ground ivy)
  • Fallopia japonica (fleeceflower, Japanese knotweed)
  • Firmiana simplex (Chinese parasol tree)
  • Hedera helix (common ivy, English ivy)
  • Heracleum mantegazzianum (giant cow parsley, giant hogweed)
  • Hesperis matronalis (dame's Rocket)
  • Hieracium aurantiacum (orange hawkweed, tawny hawkweed)
  • Hydrilla verticillata (Esthwaite waterweed, hydrilla)
  • Imperata cylindrica (cogon, cogongrass)
  • Kali tragus (tumbleweed, Russian thistle, windwitch, common saltwort, Salsola)
  • Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)
  • Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet)
  • Ligustrum vulgare (European privet, wild privet)
  • Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)
  • Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle)
  • Lonicera morrowii (Morrow's honeysuckle)
  • Lonicera tatarica (Tartarian honeysuckle)
  • Lygodium japonicum (Japanese climbing fern)
  • Lygodium microphyllum (Old World climbing fern, climbing maidenhair)
  • Lysimachia nummularia (creeping Jenny, herb twopence, moneywort, twopenny grass)
  • Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife, purple lythrum, spiked loosestrife)
  • Megathyrsus maximus (Guineagrass)
  • Melaleuca quinquenervia (broad-leaved paper bark, paper bark tea tree, niaouli)
  • Melinis repens (Natal grass, Natal redtop, rose Natal grass)
  • Melia azedarach (bead tree, ceylon cedar, Chinaberry, lunumidella, Persian lilac, white cedar)
  • Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stiltgrass, Nepalese browntop)
  • Mimosa pudica (humble plant, shameful plant, sensitive plant, sleeping grass, touch-me-not)
  • Myriophyllum spicatum) (Eurasian water milfoil, Spiked water milfoil)
  • Onopordum acanthium (cotton thistle, heraldic thistle, Scots thistle, Scottish thistle, woolly thistle)
  • Paederia foetida (skunk vine)
  • Panicum repens (torpedo grass)
  • Pastinaca sativa (parsnip)
  • Paulownia tomentosa (princess tree)
  • Persicaria perfoliata (formerly Polygonum perfoliatum; Asiatic tearthumb, Chinese tearthumb, devil armor, devil's tail tearthumb, mile-a-minute weed)
  • Persicaria vulgaris (pink lady's thumb)
  • Phragmites australis (common reed)
  • Plantago major (broadleaf plantain)
  • Potamogeton crispus (curly-leaf pondweed)
  • Pueraria lobata (kudzu vine)
  • Pyrus calleryana (Bradford Pear)
  • Ranunculus ficaria (lesser celandine)
  • Rosa bracteata (MacCartney rose)
  • Rosa multiflora (baby rose, multiflora rose, rambler rose)
  • Robinia pseudoacacia (Black Locust) (native to the US, but widely planted outside its restricted range where it has become invasive)
  • Rubus armeniacus (Armenian blackberry, Himalayan blackberry)
  • Rubus phoenicolasius (Japanese wineberry, wine raspberry, wineberry)
  • Rumex crispus (curled dock, curly dock, narrow dock, sour dock, yellow dock)
  • Salvinia molesta (giant salvinia, kariba weed)
  • Schinus terebinthifolius (aroeira, Brazilian pepper, Christmasberry, Florida holly, rose pepper)
  • Solanum viarum (tropical soda apple)
  • Solanum dulcamara (woody nightshade)
  • Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)
  • Spartina alterniflora (saltmarsh cordgrass, smooth cordgrass)
  • Striga asiatica (Asiatic witchweed)
  • Tamarix spp. (saltcedar, tamarisk)
  • Tanacetum vulgare (common tansy)
  • Trapa natans (water caltrop, water chestnut)
  • Triadica sebifera (Sapium sebiferum; Chinese tallow tree, Florida aspen, gray popcorn tree)
  • Verbascum thapsus (common mullein)
  • Vinca minor (small periwinkle)

Insects


America's 9 most dangerous and costly invasive species | Slideshow ...
  • Adelges tsugae (hemlock woolly adelgid)
  • Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito)
  • Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer)
  • Anoplophora glabripennis (Asian long-horned beetle)
  • Apis mellifera scutellata (Africanized honeybee)
  • Bemisia argentifolii (silverleaf whitefly)
  • Cactoblastis cactorum (cactus moth)
  • Coptotermes formosanus (Formosan subterranean termite)
  • Diaphorina citri (Asian citrus psyllid)
  • Duponchelia fovealis (a moth from the Mediterranean region)
  • Epiphyas postvittana (light brown apple moth)
  • Euglossa dilemma (green orchid bee)
  • Halyomorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bug )
  • Harmonia axyridis (Asian lady beetle)
  • Linepithema humile (Argentine ant)
  • Lymantria dispar (European gypsy moth)
  • Monomorium pharaonis (pharaoh ant)
  • Popillia japonica (Japanese beetle)
  • Scirtothrips dorsalis (chili thrips)
  • Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant)
  • Xyleborus glabratus (redbay ambrosia beetle)

Aquatic arthropods


Boating Environmental Forum - Agriculture and Natural Resources Blogs
  • Bythotrephes cederstroemi (spiny water flea)
  • Carcinus maenas (European green crab)
  • Daphnia lumholtzi
  • Eriocheir sinensis (Chinese mitten crab)
  • Hemigrapsus sanguineus (Japanese shore crab)

Mollusks


Europe's invasive species dilemma » Greenfudge.org

Freshwater snails

  • Ampullariidae (apple snails)
  • Bithynia tentaculata (faucet snail)
  • Cipangopaludina chinensis (Chinese mystery snail)
  • Potamopyrgus antipodarum (New Zealand mud snail)

Freshwater clams

  • Corbicula fluminea (Asian clam)
  • Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel)
  • Dreissena rostriformis bugensis (quagga mussel)
  • Sphaerium corneum (European fingernail clam)

Sea snails

  • Rapana venosa (veined rapa whelk)

Land slugs

  • Deroceras reticulatum
  • Limax maximus
  • Lehmannia marginata, previously known as Limax marginatus
  • Milax gagates

Land snails

  • Helix aspersa
  • Theba pisana (White garden snail)
  • Achatina fulica (giant East African Snail)

Fish


The FrogBlog » invasive species
  • Alosa pseudoharengus (alewife)
  • Aulonocara (peacock cichlid)
  • Carassius carassius (Crucian carp)
  • Channa argus (northern snakehead)
  • Channa micropeltes (giant snakehead)
  • Ctenopharyngodon idella (grass carp)
  • Cyprinus carpio (common carp)
  • Gymnocephalus cernuus (Eurasian ruffe)
  • Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp)
  • Hypophthalmichthys nobilis (bighead carp)
  • Misgurnus anguillicaudatus (Oriental weatherloach)
  • Monopterus albus (Asian swamp eel)
  • Mylopharyngodon piceus (lback carp)
  • Neogobius melanostomus (round goby)
  • Oreochromis aureus (blue tilapia)
  • Petromyzon marinus (sea lamprey)
  • Piaractus brachypomus(red bellied pacu)
  • Pterois volitans (red lionfish)
  • Scardinius erythropthalmus (common rudd)
  • Silurus asotus (Amur catfish)

Reptiles and amphibians


Invasive Species : Great Lakes Region
  • Boiga irregularis (brown tree snake)
  • Bufo marinus (cane toad)
  • Caiman crocodilus (spectacled caiman)
  • Iguana iguana (green iguana)
  • Dendrobates auratus (green and black poison dart frog)
  • Python bivittatus (Burmese python)
  • Rana catesbeiana (bullfrog)
  • Varanus niloticus (Nile monitor)
  • Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog)
  • Osteopilus septentrionalis (Cuban tree frog)

Birds and mammals



  • Brotogeris versicolurus (white winged parakeet)
  • Canis lupus familiaris (domestic dog)
  • Cervus nippon (sika deer)
  • Columba livia (rock pigeon)
  • Cygnus olor (mute swan)
  • Felis catus (domestic cat)
  • Haemorhous mexicanus (house finch)
  • Homo sapiens (human)
  • Lepus europaeus (European hare)
  • Melopsittacus undulatus (budgerigar, Common pet parakeet)
  • Myiopsitta monachus (monk parakeet, Quaker parrot)
  • Myocastor coypus (coypu, nutria)
  • Passer domesticus (house sparrow)
  • Rattus norvegicus (brown rat)
  • Rattus rattus (black rat)
  • Streptopelia decaocto (Eurasian collared dove)
  • Sturnus vulgaris (European starling)
  • Sus scrofa (wild boar)

Pathogens



  • Avipoxvirus (fowlpox)
  • Batrachochytrium (chytridiomycosis)
  • Cryphonectria parasitica (chestnut blight)
  • Flavivirus (West Nile virus)
  • Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease)
  • Ophiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease)
  • Paramyxovirus (Exotic Newcastle disease)
  • Phakopsora spp. (soybean rust)
  • Phytophthora ramorum (sudden oak death)
  • Potyvirus (plum pox)
  • Pseudogymnoascus destructans (white-nose syndrome)

Others



  • Didymosphenia geminata (Didymo, rock snot)
  • Lumbricidae spp. (earthworms)
  • Varroa destructor (Varroa mite)
  • Polistes dominula (European paper wasp)

See also



  • Invasive earthworms of North America
  • Invasive species in the United States

References



External links



  • National Invasive Species Information Center, National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for invasive species.


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