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The following is a list of extinct plants only.

Prehistoric extinctions


Peter Maas - Google+

Carboniferous

  • Annularia
  • Sigillaria
  • Lepidodendron
  • Calamites
  • Sphenophyllum

Permian

  • Cordaites
  • Glossopteris
  • Sphenophyllum

Triassic

  • Araucarioxylon
  • Caytoniales (extinct at the end of the Cretaceous)
  • Cladophlebis
  • Zamites
  • Brachyphyllum
  • Pleuromeia
  • Pannaulika
  • Sphenophyllum

Jurassic

  • Araucaria mirabilis
  • Araucarites sanctaecrucis
  • Baiera
  • Coniopteris
  • Cycadeoidea
  • Czekanowskia
  • Eboracia
  • Equisetum thermale (La Matilde Formation, Argentina)
  • Gleichenites
  • Neocalamites
  • Nilssonia
  • Pararaucaria patagonica
  • Pterophyilum
  • Schmeissneria

Cretaceous

  • Archaeamphora (Northeastern China)
  • Archaeanthus
  • Archaefructus
  • Ephedrites
  • Liaoningocladus
  • Orontium mackii (Maastrictian?, McRea Formation, North America)
  • Palaeoaldrovanda (Czech Republic)
  • Pagiophyllum
  • Pityocladus
  • Podozamites
  • Sagaria (Southern Italy)
  • Sphenobaiera
  • Williamsonia
  • Williamsoniella

Paleocene

  • Acer alaskense (Chickaloon Formation, Alaska)
  • Banksieaeidites (Australia) (species through the Miocene)
  • Cornus piggae (Almont/Biecegal Creek, North America)
  • Pinus peregrinus (Golden Valley Formation)
  • Ginkgo cranei (Sentinel Butte Formation)
  • Metasequoia foxii (Paskapoo Formation, Alberta)
  • Montrichardia aquatica (Cerrejón Formation, Colombia)
  • Petrocardium (Cerrejón Formation, Colombia)

Eocene

  • Acer castorrivularis (Montana, North America)
  • Acer clarnoense (John Day Formation, North America)
  • Acer douglasense (West Foreland Formation, Alaska, North America)
  • Acer hillsi (Klondike Mountain Formation, Washington, North America)
  • Acer republicense (Klondike Mountain Formation, Washington, North America)
  • Acer rousei (Allenby Formation, McAbee Site, British Columbia, North America)
  • Acer stewarti (Allenby Formation, British Columbia, North America)
  • Acer stonebergae (Okanagan Highlands, North America)
  • Acer taurocursum (Bull Run flora, North America)
  • Acer toradense (Okanagan Highlands, North America)
  • Acer washingtonense (Klondike Mountain Formation, Washington, North America)
  • Actinidia oregonensis (Central Oregon, USA)
  • Azolla primaeva (British Columbia, Canada)
  • Abies milleri (British Columbia, Canada; Washington, USA)
  • Banksia archaeocarpa (Australia)
  • Chamaecyparis eureka (Axel Heiberg Island, Canada)
  • Corylopsis readae (Klondike Mountain Formation, Washington, North America)
  • Cornus clarnensis (Central Oregon, USA)
  • Coryloides (Central Oregon, USA)
  • Corylus johnsonii (Washington, USA)
  • Dillhoffia (British Columbia, Canada; Washington, USA)
  • Diploporus (Paleocene-Eocene; Sentinel Butte Formation, Clarno Formation)
  • Eucommia eocenica (Claiborne Formation, southeastern North America)
  • Eucommia montana (Western North America)
  • Eucommia jeffersonensis (John Day Formation, Oregon, North America)
  • Eucommia rolandii (North America)
  • Fothergilla malloryi (Klondike Mountain Formation, Washington, North America)
  • Ginkgo dissecta (Ypresian, Okanagan Highlands)
  • Kardiasperma (Central Oregon, USA)
  • Langeria magnifica (Okanagan highlands, north America)
  • Nelumbo aureavallis (North Dakota, North America)
  • Neviusia dunthornei (Allenby Formation, North America)
  • Orontium wolfei (Okanagan Highlands)
  • Paleopanax (Central Oregon, USA)
  • Peltandra primaeva (North Dakota, USA)
  • Pinus driftwoodensis (Driftwood Canyon Provincial Park, British Columbia)
  • Rhus malloryi (Washington, USA)
  • Rhus rooseae (Central Oregon, USA)
  • Sassafras hesperia (Okanogan Highlands)
  • Saxonipollis ("East Germany")
  • Stonebergia (British Columbia, Canada)
  • Taxus masonii (Central Oregon, USA)
  • Tilia johnsoni (Washington, USA)
  • Torreya clarnensis (Central Oregon, USA)
  • Trochodendron drachuckii (Okanogan Highlands)
  • Trochodendron nastae (Washington, USA)

Oligocene

  • Acer ashwilli (John Day Formation, Oregon)
  • Acer chaneyi (Oligocene to Miocene)
  • Acer dettermani (Late Eocene - Early Oligocene; Meshik Volcanics, Alaska)
  • Acer ivanofense (Late Eocene - Early Oligocene; Meshick Volcanics, Alaska)
  • Acer kenaicum (Oligocene; Kenai Group, Alaska)
  • Banksia novae-zelandiae (South Island, New Zealand) (Straddles the Oligocene-Miocene boundary)

Miocene

  • Acer browni (western North America)
  • Acer latahense (western North America)
  • Acer smileyi (Late Oligocene-Middle Miocene; western North America)
  • Acer traini (western North America)
  • Carya washingtonensis (Washington State, North America)
  • Droserapites (Taiwan)
  • Droserapollis (Taiwan)
  • Hymenaea allendis (Late Oligocene - early Eocene; Mexican Amber)
  • Hymenaea mexicana (Late Oligocene - early Eocene; Mexican Amber)
  • Hymenaea protera (Dominican amber)
  • Osmunda wehrii (Yakima Canyon Flora, North America)
  • Palaeoraphe (Dominican Republic)
  • Roystonea palaea (Dominican amber)
  • Sequoiadendron chaneyi (Western North America)
  • Wessiea yakimaensis (Yakima Canyon Flora, North America)

Pliocene

  • Acer palaeorufinerve (Miocene - Pliocene; East Asia and possibly Alaska?)
  • Pinus matthewsii

Pleistocene

  • Banksia kingii (Western Tasmania)
  • Banksia strahanensis (Western Tasmania)
  • Picea critchfieldi (North America)

Modern extinctions


Endangered Species International

Africa

  • Acalypha rubrinervis (1870, Saint Helena)
  • Usambara Annone â€" Anonidium usambarense (1910, Tanzania) Remove - this was a misidentified specimen see Thomas Couvreur
  • Aspalathus complicata (1940s, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Aspalathus cordicarpa (1950s, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Aspalathus variegata (1900, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Barleria natalensis (1900, South Africa)
  • Brachystelma schoenlandianum (1900, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Byttneria ivorensis (1896, Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Cephalophyllum parvulum (1900, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Ceropegia antennifera (1910, South Africa)
  • Ceropegia bowkeri (1900, South Africa)
  • Coffea lemblinii (1907, Côte d'Ivoire)
  • Conophytum semivestitum (1900, South Africa)
  • Crassula subulata (1900, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Cyclopia filiformis (1900, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Disa forcipata (1900, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Dryopteris ascensionis (1889, Ascension Island)
  • Erica alexandri subsp. acockii (1940, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Erica foliacea subsp. fulgens (1900, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Erica pyramidalis var. pyramidalis (1910, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Erythrina schliebenii (1938, Tanzania)Remove - this species was rediscovered in Tanzania in 2011
  • Eugenia pusilla (1920, South Africa)
  • Helichrysum outeniquense (1950, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Saint Helena Heliotrope â€" Heliotropium pannifolium (1808, Saint Helena)
  • Isolepis bulbifera (1950, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Lampranthus vanzijliae (1920, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Leucadendron grandiflorum (1805, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Leucadendron spirale (1930, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Liparia graminifolia (1830, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Macledium pretoriense (1925, South Africa)
  • Macrostylis villosa subsp. minor (1980, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Nemesia micrantha (1900, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Saint Helena Olive â€" Nesiota elliptica (2003, Saint Helena)
  • Oldenlandia adscensionis (1889, Ascension Island)
  • Orchidea eupolyanthis (1910, Cameroon)
  • Osteospermum hirsutum (1900, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Pausinystalia brachythyrsum (1898, Cameroon)
  • Polhillia ignota (1950s, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Psoralea cataracta (1900, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Psoralea gueinzii (1930, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Silphium â€" Ferula ? (c. 50, Cyrene)
  • Sporobolus durus (1886, Ascension Island)
  • Thamnea depressa (1900, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Saint Helena Ebony â€" Trochetiopsis melanoxylon (1771, Saint Helena)
  • Vernonella africana (1900, South Africa)
  • Willdenowia affinis (1920, South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Xysmalobium baurii (1900, South Africa)

Americas

  • Roan Mountain False Goat's-beard - Astilbe crenatiloba (1885, Roan Mountain, Tennessee)
  • Galapagos Amaranth â€" Blutaparon rigidum (1999, Galápagos Ecuador)
  • Rio de Janeiro Myrtle â€" Campomanesia lundiana (1825, Brazil)
  • Casearia quinduensis (1997, Colombia)
  • Rio de Janeiro Sapota â€" Chrysophyllum januariense (1997, Brazil)
  • Havana Fragrant Tree â€" Cnidoscolus fragrans (1840, Cuba)
  • Santa Cruz Bryophyte â€" Flabellidium spinosum (1911, Bolivia)
  • Cuban Ruta Tree â€" Galipea ossana (1825, Cuba)
  • Cuban Guettarda Tree â€" Guettarda retusa (1975, Cuba)
  • Licania caldasiana (1997, Colombia)
  • Mason River Myrtle â€" Myrcia skeldingii (1972, Jamaica)
  • Appalachian Yellow Asphodel - Narthecium montanum (Henderson County, North Carolina)
  • Hastings County Neomacounia â€" Neomacounia nitida (1864, Canada)
  • Bigleaf Scurfpea - Orbexilum macrophyllum (1899, Polk County, North Carolina)
  • Falls-of-the-Ohio scurfpea - Orbexilum stipulatum (1881, Jefferson County, Kentucky)
  • Rio de Janeiro Pouteria â€" Pouteria stenophylla (1997, Brazil)
  • Cajamarca Pradosia â€" Pradosia argentea (1820, Peru)
  • Rio de Janeiro Pradosia â€" Pradosia glaziovii (1997, Brazil)
  • Colombian Pradosia â€" Pradosia mutisii (1925, Colombia)
  • Jamaican Psidium â€" Psidium dumetorum (1976, Jamaica)
  • Juan Fernandez Santalum â€" Santalum fernandezianum (1908, Chile)
  • Thismia americana â€" Thismia americana (1916, Chicago, IL, USA)

Asia

  • Adiantum lianxianense (Guangdong, China)
  • Sri Lanka Legume Tree â€" Crudia zeylanica (1990, Sri Lanka)
  • Kerala Legume Tree â€" Cynometra beddomei (1870, India)
  • Sumatra Dipterocarpus â€" Dipterocarpus cinereus (1996, Sumatra, Indonesia)
  • Arunchal Hopea Tree â€" Hopea shingkeng (1996, India)
  • Nilgiri Holly â€" Ilex gardneriana (1859, India)
  • Karnataka Sapota â€" Madhuca insignis (1900, India)
  • Hainan Ormosia â€" Ormosia howii (1997, Southern China)
  • Hainan Otophora â€" Otophora unilocularis (1935, Hainan, China)
  • Pluchea glutinosa (19th Century, Yemen)
  • Psiadia schweinfurthii (19th Century, Yemen)
  • Sarawak Shorea â€" Shorea cuspidata (1996, Malaysia)
  • Meghalaya Sterculia â€" Sterculia khasiana (1877, India)
  • Valerianella affinis (19th century, Yemen)
  • Courtallum Wendlandia â€" Wendlandia angustifolia (1997, India)
  • Woolly-stalked Begonia - Begonia eiromischa (20th century, Penang, Malaysia)
  • Ruzhildalani "Ruzhil" (1995, India)

Europe

  • Italian Bryophyte â€" Radula visiniaca (1938, Italy)
  • Cry Pansy â€" Viola cryana (1933, France)

Oceania

  • Hawaii Chaff Flower â€" Achyranthes atollensis (1964, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Argyroxiphium virescens (1996, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Casearia tinifolia (1976, Mauritius)
  • Clermontia multiflora (1871, Hawaiian Is.)
  • New Calodonia Sapinda â€" Cupaniopsis crassivalvis (1869, New Caledonia)
  • Haleakala Cyanea Tree â€" Cyanea arborea (1928, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Cyanea comata (late 19th century, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Cyanea cylindrocalyx (1909, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Cyanea dolichopoda (1990, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Giffard's Cyanea Tree â€" Cyanea giffardii (1917, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Mark's Cyanea Tree â€" Cyanea marksii (1900, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Pohaku Cyanea Tree â€" Cyanea pohaku (1910, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Kohala Cyanea Tree â€" Cyanea pycnocarpa (1997, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Oak-leaved Cyanea Tree â€" Cyanea quercifolia (1997, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Dracaena umbraculifera (Mauritius)
  • Taravai Aster Tree â€" Fitchia mangarevensis (1997, Taravai, French Polynesia)
  • Moorea Laurel â€" Hernandia drakeana (1997, French Polynesia)
  • Kawaihae Hibiscadelphus â€" Hibiscadelphus bombycinus (1868, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Puhielelu Hibiscadelphus â€" Hibiscadelphus crucibracteatus (1981, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Auwahi Hibiscadelphus â€" Hibiscadelphus wilderianus (1910, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Oahu Kokia â€" Kokia lanceolata (1888, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Cross-bearing Pelea â€" Melicope cruciata (1997, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Maui Ruta Tree â€" Melicope haleakalae (1919, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Obovate Melicope â€" Melicope obovata (1997, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Nuku Hiva Neisosperma â€" Neisosperma brownii (1997, French Polynesia)
  • Fatu Hiva Ochrosia â€" Ochrosia fatuhivensis (1997, French Polynesia)
  • Nuku Hiva Ochrosia â€" Ochrosia nukuhivensis (1997, French Polynesia)
  • Tahiti Ochrosia â€" Ochrosia tahitensis (1997, French Polynesia)
  • Hawaii Ruta Tree â€" Pelea obovata (1997, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Koé Stenocarpus â€" Stenocarpus dumbeensis (1905, New Caledonia)
  • Norfolk Island Streblorrhiza â€" Streblorrhiza speciosa (1997, Norfolk Island)
  • Fijian Weinmannia â€" Weinmannia spiraeoides (1840, Fiji)
  • Skottsberg's Wikstroemia â€" Wikstroemia skottsbergiana (1997, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Hakeakala Wikstroemia â€" Wikstoemia villosa (1997, Hawaiian Is.)
  • Prony Bay Xanthostemon â€" Xanthostemon sebertii (1869, New Caledonia)

Plants extinct in the wild


5 Reasons to Bring Back Extinct Animals (And 5 Reasons Not To) - D ...

Africa

  • St. Helena Roundleaf Gumwood â€" (Commidendrum rotundifolium) (Saint Helena)
  • Encephalartos brevifoliolatus (South Africa)
  • Encephalartos nubimontanus (South Africa)
  • Encephalartos relictus (Swaziland)
  • Encephalartos woodii (South Africa)
  • Erica bolusiae Salter var. cyathiformis (South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Erica turgida (South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Erica verticillata (South Africa: Cape Flora)
  • Pleiospilos simulans (South Africa)
  • Lotus berthelotii (Canary Islands)
  • St. Helena Redwood â€" (Trochetiopsis erythroxylon) (Saint Helena)

Americas

  • Cosmos atrosanguineus (Mexico)
  • Csapodya splendens (syn. Deppea splendens) (Mexico)
  • Root-spine Palm â€" (Cryosophila williamsii) (Honduras)
  • Cuban Erythroxylum â€" (Erythroxylum echinodendron) (Cuba)
  • Franklin Tree â€" (Franklinia alatamaha) (Georgia, U.S.)
  • Laelia gouldiana (Mexico)
  • Biznaguita â€" (Mammillaria glochidiata) (Mexico)
  • Biznaguita â€" (Mammillaria guillauminiana) (Mexico)
  • Rio de Janeiro Terminalia â€" (Terminalia acuminata) (Brazil)
  • Bastard gumwood (Commidendrum rotundifolium) (St. Helena)

Asia

  • India Monocarpic Palm â€" (Corypha taliera) - (Bengal)
  • Pallasana Spurge â€" (Euphorbia mayurnathanii) (India)
  • Yunnan Malva â€" (Firmiana major) (Yunnan, China)
  • Kalimantan Mango â€" (Mangifera casturi) (Kalimantan, Indonesia)
  • Sarawak Mango â€" (Mangifera rubropetala) (Kalimantan & Sumatra)
  • Kanehira Azalea â€" (Rhododendron kanehirai) (Taiwan)
  • Tulipa sprengeri (Turkey)

Europe

  • Szaferi Birch â€" (Betula szaferi) (Poland)
  • Lysimachia minoricensis (Spain)

Oceania

  • Cyanea pinnatifida (Hawaiian Is.)
  • Royal Cyanea Tree â€" (Cyanea superba) (Hawaiian Is.)
  • Punaluu Cyanea â€" (Cyanea truncata) (Hawaiian Is.)
  • Fuzzyflower Cyrtandra â€" (Cyrtandra waiolani) (Hawaiian Is.)
  • Hemiandra rutilans (Australia)
  • Cooke's Kokia â€" (Kokia cookei) (Hawaiian Is)
  • Toromiro â€" (Sophora toromiro) (Easter Island, Chile)

Extinct plant cultivars


UK's extinct 421 species including mammals, birds and plants ...
  • Ansault - pear cultivar
  • Semper Augustus - a tulip from the days of tulip mania
  • Taliaferro - apple cultivar
  • Viceroy - tulip traded during tulip mania

Plants previously thought extinct and subsequently rediscovered


extinct animals and plants #

See Lazarus species

  • Badula ovalifolia â€" from Mauritius. Known in 1830's; collected in 1970 and 1997 but misidentified (Page and D'Argent 1997, IUCN report)/confirmed identity in 2008 (Florens et al., Kew Bulletin)
  • Café marron (Ramosmania rodriguesii) - rediscovered on Rodrigues in 1979
  • Jellyfish tree (Medusagyne oppositifolia) - rediscovered in Seychelles in the 1970s
  • Sichuan Thuja â€" (Thuja sutchuenensis) â€" rediscovered 1999 (Sichuan, China)
  • Gibraltar Campion (Silene tomentosa) - rediscovered on Gibraltar in 1994
  • Astragalus nitidiflorus (1909, Spain) - rediscovered 2004 (Cartagena, Spain)

Extinct algae


Give Animals a Voice: About Australian Endangered Animals
  • Bennett's Seaweed - Vanvoorstia bennettiana - a red alga. (1886, Australia)

See also



  • List of extinct animals
  • A list of Presumed Extinct Plant species in South Africa (likely to be extinct but not yet adequately confirmed) can be found at http://redlist.sanbi.org/search.php?sppsearch=CR+PE

References



External links



  • The Extinction Website
  • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species


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