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Trimeresurus is a genus of venomous pitvipers found in Asia from the Indian Subcontinent throughout Southeast Asia, China and the Pacific Islands. Currently 35 species are recognized. Common names include Asian palm pit vipers, Asian lanceheads and Asian lance-headed vipers.

Description


Trimeresurus

Most are relatively small, primarily arboreal species, with thin bodies and prehensile tails. They are typically green in color, but some species also have yellow, black, orange or red markings. Sometimes gold.

Feeding


Trimeresurus

Their diet includes a variety of other animals, including rodents, lizards, amphibians and birds.

Reproduction


Trimeresurus

Like most viper species, many of the species in the genus Trimeresurus are ovoviviparous, bearing live young. However, some species such as T. flavoviridis, T. gramineus, T. kaulbacki, and T. macrolepis are oviparous, lay eggs. Also, the reproductive biology of some Trimeresurus species is as yet unknown.

Venom



Their venom varies in toxicity between species, but all are primarily hemotoxic and considered to be medically significant to humans. One nickname for this snake among locals is "100 pace snake" in reference to the legend that, once bitten, a person can walk 100 more steps before dropping dead.

Geographic range


Trimeresurus

Southeast Asia from [[India] including regions of North Chotanagpur ofJharkhand] to southern China and Japan, and the Malay Archipelago to Timor.

Species


Trimeresurus

*) Not including the nominate subspecies.
T) Type species.

Taxonomy


Trimeresurus

Species that may be recognized by other sources include:

  • T. andersonii Theobald, 1868. Commonly called Anderson's pit viper, found in the Andaman Islands of India.
  • T. barati Regenass & Kramer, 1981. Commonly called Barat's bamboo viper, found in Indonesia.
  • T. fucatus Vogel, David & Pauwels, 2004. Commonly called the Siamese peninsula pit viper and found in southern Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia.
  • T. insularis Kramer, 1977. Commonly called the white-lipped island pit viper and found in Indonesia.
  • T. malcolmi Loveridge, 1938. Commonly called Malcolm's pit viper and found on Borneo (Indonesia).
  • T. nebularis Vogel, David & Pauwels, 2004. Commonly called the Cameron Highlands pit viper and found in West Malaysia (Cameron Highlands).
  • T. sabahi Regenass & Kramer,1981. Commonly called Sabah's bamboo viper and found on Borneo, Indonesia.
  • T. truongsonensis , Ryabov, Thanh & Cuc, 2004. Found in central Vietnam.
  • T. venustus Vogel, 1991. Commonly called the beautiful pit viper and found in southern Thailand.


The genus Trimeresurus (sensu lato) has been the subject of considerable taxonomic work since 2000, resulting in the recognition of additional genera within this complex. Most authors now recognise the genus Protobothrops for the species cornutus, flavoviridis, jerdonii, kaulbacki, mucrosquamatus, tokarensis, xiangchengensis, since these have been shown not to be closely related to other Trimeresurus in recent phylogenetic analyses.

In addition, Malhotra and Thorpe (2004) proposed a radical shake up of the entire genus, splitting Trimeresurus into seven genera. Their proposed arrangement (including species described since 2004) is shown in the table below:

This new arrangement has been followed by many, but not all subsequent authors.

David et al. (2011) considered some of the genera of Malhotra & Thorpe to be subgenera of the genus Trimeresurus, creating new combinations such as "Trimeresurus (Parias) flavomaculatus", "Trimeresurus (Popeia) popeiorum", "Trimeresurus (Viridovipera) stejnegeri", etc.

See also


Trimeresurus
  • List of crotaline species and subspecies
  • Trimeresurus by common name
  • Trimeresurus by taxonomic synonyms
  • Crotalinae by common name
  • Crotalinae by taxonomic synonyms
  • Snakebite
  • Pit viper struggling for life in a road through forest in Jalpaiguri.

References


Trimeresurus

Further reading



  • Lacépède, B.G. 1804. Mémoire Sur plusieurs animaux de la Nouvelle-Hollande dont la description n'a pas encore été publiée. Annales du Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 4: 184-211. (Trimeresurus, p. 209.)

External links



  • Trimeresurus at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 6 December 2007.
  • Trimeresurus at Herpbreeder.com. Accessed 26 September 2006.


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