Coniophanes is a large genus of colubrid snakes, typically referred to as black-striped snakes, but they also have many other common names. The genus consists of 13 species, and despite the common name, not all of them display striping.
They are found primarily in Mexico and Central America, but range as far north as southern Texas in the United States, and as far south as Peru in South America.
Snakes of the genus Coniophanes grow to a length of 31-46 cm (12-18 in) and are typically brown in color, with black striping down their sides and center of their backs, and red or orange undersides. Some of the species, such as C. alvarezi, are solid brown.
Coniophanes snakes are secretive burrowers. They spend most of their time digging into loose soils, forest leaf litter, or under rotting cactus. They are nocturnal, emerging from their underground retreats in the late evening to feed on frogs, lizards, small rodents, and smaller snakes.
They are oviparous, laying clutches of up to 10 eggs in loose soil, which hatch in around 40 days, depending on relative temperature and humidity. Hatchlings are about 17 cm (6.5 inches) in length.
- Chiapan stripeless snake, C. alvarezi Campbell, 1989 - Mexico
- Isla San Andres snake, C. andresensis Bailey, 1937 - Isla San Andres, Colombia
- Two-spotted snake, C. bipunctatus - Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Belize, Nicaragua, Panama, El Salvador, and Costa Rica
- C. b. bipunctatus (GÃ¼nther, 1858)
- C. b. biseriatus Smith, 1940
- Peters' running snake, C. dromiciformis (Peters, 1863) - Ecuador and Peru
- Yellowbelly snake, C. fissidens - Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia
- C. f. convergens Shannon & Smith, 1950
- C. f. dispersus Smith, 1941
- C. f. fissidens (GÃ¼nther, 1858)
- C. f. proterops (Cope, 1860)
- C. f. punctigularis (Cope, 1860)
- Black-striped snake, C. imperialis - United States (Texas), Mexico, Belize, Guatemala, and Honduras
- C. i. imperialis Baird, 1859
- C. i. clavatus (Peters, 1864)
- C. i. copei Hartweg & Oliver, 1938
- C. joanae Myers, 1966 - Panama
- Stripeless snake, C. lateritius - Mexico
- C. l. lateritius Cope, 1862
- C. l. melanocephalus (Peters, 1869)
- C. longinquus Cadle, 1989 - Peru
- Peninsula stripeless snake, C. meridanus Schmidt & Andrews, 1936
- Cope's black-striped snake, C. piceivittis - Mexico, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica
- C. p. frangivirgatus Peters, 1950
- C. p. piceivittis Cope, 1869
- C. p. taylori Hall, 1951
- Five-striped snake, C. quinquevittatus (DumÃ©ril, Bibron & DumÃ©ril, 1854) - Mexico and Guatemala
- Faded black-striped snake, C. schmidti Bailey, 1937 - Mexico, Belize, and Guatemala.
- Herps of Texas: Coniophanes imperialis
- Genus Coniophanes at The Reptile Database
- "Coniophanes". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 16 February 2011.Â